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Mike
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« on: October 23, 2014, 08:25:55 PM »

I've recently started taking college classes online with the aspirations of gaining more academic credibility before I hang up the Uniform for the last time. While this is a development very late in coming, I am positive that my educational goals are not "just for the diploma/degree/certification", but more of a refining process for the talents I already have and developmental restructuring for the areas I need to improve. The end goal is a Bachelor's in Military History with a concentration in American Military History... with what hopefully will be a generous dose of Human Resources Management certifications heaped in there somewhere. As I have said here on this forum before, it is the guidance and suggestions given here which has initiated this course, and I thank you all for the constructive words and perspectives you have shared.

Now comes more chances to be constructive...

One of the best influences in my life was my 12th grade Creative Writing teacher, and the advice he gave to me then still resonates in my head: "Mike, write what you know." At 18, I didn't know a lot, but I knew when to shut up and remember wise words. Years later, I am doing exactly that - writing what I know... or more precisely, what I think I know. This topic will be submissions of essays I have written for various classes, and they are up for dissection. While they are posted here after being turned in (I have this strange dread of plagiarism - even if they are my own words), I still would like to get feedback from subject matter experts in order to refine my ideas and clarify potential errors I have made.  Not only that, but this forum has gotten real quiet, and it is a shame to have such a wealth of information sitting dormant.

I don't foresee any immediate academic reason for referencing/using any information shared here, but if there is, I will address it accordingly with the involved contributors and give appropriate citations. Along with that, I have thick skin and only want to give only the best "high-quality ingredients", so please don't beat around the bush - if I'm wrong, let me know (which, with this crowd, will NOT be a problem Smiley )

Mike
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"When you're holding people's attention, I feel you must give them high-quality ingredients. They deserve nothing but your best. And if they need information, get it, cross-check it, and try to be right. Do not waste their time; do not enjoy the ego trip of being onstage."

Henry Rollins
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« Reply #1 on: October 23, 2014, 08:27:30 PM »

"The topic I am choosing for the next essay is somewhat obscure: Logistic Leadership and Management during the Second World War.
In browsing the ProQuest ebrary, I came across “32 In 44: Building the Portsmouth Submarine Fleet in World War II” by Rodney Watterson. Since this incorporates two topics of personal interest: leadership and diesel submarines, this only seemed to be a natural fit and something worth looking into more.
 
My son and I are what you would call “history nerds”, and what started it for him was an old World War II submarine moored in Pearl Harbor. The USS Bowfin, a Balao - class submarine, was built at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in 1942. During this time in the United States, victory in Europe, Africa, and the Pacific was far from certain. On a scale not seen before, production lines across the country were being expanded to produce more of everything – from boots to bombers.
 
Leadership has routinely been the subject of the Generals, Admirals, and politicians, but the lessons from the individuals who built, shipped, maintained, and developed the capability for those “highly-visible” leaders are more applicable today than previously considered. 
 
An idea which I have been pondering for a long time is how concepts, ideas, and processes which came naturally to those few who were tasked with so much can relate to modern day leadership/management styles.  The challenge is how to make it relevant without being dry and overly academic, but this is a task which is worth the effort."
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"When you're holding people's attention, I feel you must give them high-quality ingredients. They deserve nothing but your best. And if they need information, get it, cross-check it, and try to be right. Do not waste their time; do not enjoy the ego trip of being onstage."

Henry Rollins
Mike
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« Reply #2 on: October 23, 2014, 08:29:55 PM »

Thesis Statement:  Leadership has not always been about what is learned in books or heard in a seminar – it has historically been a trait learned through application and experimentation.

The decision of this statement is merely a quick summary of not only why this topic is interesting to me, but how it could theoretically be applied to the modern age. While the discovery of the book was due to a chance moment of distraction on an unrelated topic, this thought has been on my mind ever since I read “Under the Red Sea Sun” by CDR Edward Ellsberg in 2010. I think I take a pretty decent stand in this statement as I not only challenge the validity of the various leadership courses I have attended through the Army, but I also feel that I almost have to defend the statement against itself, as it seemingly creates a paradox of purpose versus application.
 
The ideas for the purpose of this writing are somewhat fluid, but the core of the direction I would like to go is fairly clear – to keep this essay relevant/applicable and to build further on it later in life.  At the time of this writing, the three supporting directions will be:

  What were the conditions necessitating strong leadership?
  What were the typical problems associated with large-scale production of complex equipment?
  How might this relate to modern leadership dynamics as well as correlate into issues which the leader/manager faces now?

The supporting research should be interesting, as there are already good sources of current management/leadership material. The challenge might be in relying on just the one period book I have found so far.
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"When you're holding people's attention, I feel you must give them high-quality ingredients. They deserve nothing but your best. And if they need information, get it, cross-check it, and try to be right. Do not waste their time; do not enjoy the ego trip of being onstage."

Henry Rollins
Darrin
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« Reply #3 on: October 24, 2014, 03:38:54 PM »

Mike,

leadership as you know as a NCO in the Army has it's unique problems for a person to be able to plan, prepare and execute a task no matter how big or small so you actually have a great skill set that you can use during your thesis.

IF you haven't seen this before this is regarding the accidental grounding of the USS San Francisco SSN 711 that took one sailors life. That day leaders emerged and took over without needing to be told what to do and why they needed to do it. http://www.torskphotoguy.com/bbs/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=2&sid=ab336f84182271a5c57867e8b3f3ac42

To answer your questions the best that I can here is my take on it.

1.) Everyday work requires strong leadership for things to run smoothly, with a poor leader you will have poor performance and poor quality of work. For the Leaders whom had a week leadership skill set in WWII they were eventually relieved of duties and one with a strong skill set replaced them. Today's leadership sadly enough can be poor and the leader depending on the situation doesn't get relieved until the end of their tour and the strong leaders have to set on their thumbs or do twice the work to make the tasking work.
2.) IF you had multiple business building ships using the same or similar drawings there tend to be minor differences in the end product. i.e. A Portsmouth diesel boat compared to an Electric Boat diesel boat, the differences are minor in design and in some areas the quality was better in all regards to those whom rode them. i.e. some of the creature comfort inside of the boats were better in one area then on the other builders boat (berthing and I am sure that others here can pitch in on other things that were better on one compared to the other)
3.) Today's leader has so much more information at their finger tips and is able to communicate the information faster to more people than ever before. i.e. today's computers you can research just about anything that you could think of or need without thinking about it, where as take WWII your communications were limited to radio's or land lines and IF you needed to do research on a subject you had to go to a library or contact a subject matter expert if there was one on a certain subject that you had the question about hoping that they had the answers.  Also keep in mind regarding computers, computers of days past were large and took up a lot of space like the floor of a building and have less power then a typical cell phone in today's world.
4.) Would WWII or previous wars ended differently had we been able to used today's technology? absolutely. With satellite imagery and drones you can see what your enemy is doing without him knowing you are even there and the smart weapons are making for precision strikes and not "carpet bombing" or for our submarines, weapons that nearly think for themselves and without having to fire a spread of weapons hoping that you hit your target. Now you fire one weapon depending on the size of the ship and wait for the boom and the ship sinking while evading any threats or attacking other targets in the area until they are all gone or you are out of weapons to expend.

I hope that some of this helps you in your thesis, let me know IF I can help you more

Darrin
 
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Darrin
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« Reply #4 on: October 24, 2014, 03:51:17 PM »

Mike,

Forgot to mention that you also can find good and bad qualities of leadership right here on this bbs in some of the boat forums, i.e. Batfish, Torsk, Clamagore, Drum, Cod.. The first two have had great volunteer groups with museums with bad leadership that has instead of making their museums better have fallen short on and now are having to pay others to do work that was being done for free by the volunteers. The Clamagore? well she just suffered straight up from bad leadership as did the other ships in the museum. And the last two have shown that great leadership with a great group of volunteers anything is possible as long as the materials are available when needed and the knowledge of both the museum and the volunteer groups are working together and not against each other is priceless.

Personally I would make it a bucket list item if you are a history buff that loves to study submarines would be to go see the USS COD in Cleveland, Oh. Paul Farace whom is also a contributor on here is their director and I am proud to call him my friend has in what most people call the closest to perfect WWII Submarine that looks exactly like she did during WWII inside and out. i.e. her weapons shipping hatches have not been cut so you have to enter the same way the crew did and yes she could submerge if needed without much fear of flooding or sinking. Can she go to sea? nope, the Navy took her screws (propellers) off many moons ago and from what I remember she no longer has her batteries onboard.

Speaking of Paul Farace, he started on the very bottom rung of the ladder their at the USS COD as a volunteer whom knew nothing about submarines or really about the Navy and now he runs the in my opinion the BEST WWII Submarine museum in the world. And that is because he had great leaders mentor him and he has become a great leader in his own right

Darrin
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Mike
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« Reply #5 on: November 01, 2014, 07:27:37 PM »

Darrin,
Thanks for the feedback!

The plan is eventually to get up to Cleveland and Manitowoc on the next round of visits with my son. I’ve been sort of following / stalking what Paul and Karen have been doing with the Cod and Karen with the Cobia in the lulls between academic research and Cosmoline removal, and right now I am impressed with all of the above. Ideally, I’d like to wander all over the place to see the various boats and museums, but until I either with the lottery or find employment necessitating official travel to all points near and far, I will have to do it piecemeal.

The article you shared was pretty decent. I had come across pictures of the San Francisco in dry-dock, but there were never really good links as to what happened. I’d love to draw more thoughtful conclusions about the incident, but I have seen my share of errors in the Army, and one thing I dislike is the “authoritive analysis from the uninformed/unfamiliar”.  Suffice to say, it is always a tragedy when training takes a life.

I agree with the statement of “strong leadership for things to run smoothly, with a poor leader you will have poor performance and poor quality of work” more so than you could ever imagine. Even now, I am witnessing a textbook example of the latter case within my organization. The good thing about the feces striking the rotating collection of airfoils is that it brings out the best and worst of all who are within splattering range fairly quickly. This leads into the other point of interest you shared: communication. It seems to me that the ease with which we are able to communicate is both a blessing and a curse at the same time. Yes, we can pass information pretty much anywhere on the planet at any time and it is proving to be more difficult to be unreachable than reachable, but at the same time it almost restricts the lower-echelon leader / decision-maker to the point where they can’t and won’t make a decision until they hear from higher. This isn’t new news, apparently – O’Kane and Morton wrote about poor Fox / Ultra messages which spoke of micro-managing from Pearl even back then. Along with the communications goes the technology, and given the fact that these boats were designed without CAD and the fish were fired with minds steeped with math skills I refuse to acknowledge and calculated by a mechanical computer I cannot begin to comprehend… it was a way different time in more ways than one. That last sentence sort of tripped me up a bit in structure as well as reminding me about the other project I have in mind – dissecting the formal education of the skippers back then to sort of reverse-engineer their professional progression.

Ok… more coffee, and more reading. Yes, the feedback is getting more cylinders firing, and I greatly appreciate the words.

Mike
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"When you're holding people's attention, I feel you must give them high-quality ingredients. They deserve nothing but your best. And if they need information, get it, cross-check it, and try to be right. Do not waste their time; do not enjoy the ego trip of being onstage."

Henry Rollins
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« Reply #6 on: November 04, 2014, 09:11:50 PM »

The latest submission. Something feels off about this, but I thought I'd share it.

     Nestled among the standard fare of chowder houses and souvenir shops found at Fisherman’s Wharf in San Francisco, the low gray hull of a submarine sits in the brackish waters of San Francisco Bay. The USS Pampanito (SS-383) is one of the sixteen diesel subs from the Second World War remaining today as part of the San Francisco Maritime National Historic Park (Galvani 171). The lessons to be taught by this most unlikely of schoolhouses lies not in the impressive wartime exploits in the Pacific Ocean, but the hands, minds and leadership responsible for the construction of thirty-one similar boats in one year – 1944. The Pampanito stands as an example and proof of the idea that leadership has not always been about what is learned in books or heard in a seminar – it has historically been a trait learned through application and experimentation.

     Effective learning is truly a process which involves the active participation of all elements involved. The instructor has information deemed vital enough to share, the medium for teaching has to be sufficient for the setting, and the students have to bring motivation to not only receive, but process the lesson. All of these separate parts came together before and during the wartime mobilization in Portsmouth, Maine in a unique and effective manner. In a time where “orderly and harmonious management-employee relationships were not the case at many shipyards” (Watterson 60), Portsmouth, under the leadership of Commandant Withers and industrial manager, Captain H. F. D Davis not only thrived in providing the instruction of effective leadership, but succeeded with the motivation of what Watterson considered “an unusually patriotic and dedicated workforce” (57).

     The efforts and dedication of the leadership and workforce exhibited during 1944 becomes apparent upon consideration of several factors. One point of interest is the initiative shown in a strong working relationship with the Selective Service Administration in developing a pattern hiring of female workers before losing large numbers of experienced military-age males. This allowed for critical skills to be passed on before the men reported for duty in the various branches of Service. Another key indicator of the success of Portsmouth is the value the submarine crews placed in the submarines produced by the shipyard. “Portsmouth boats” were highly sought after by experienced skippers (120) and the lessons learned from operational use were implemented with minimal paperwork and bureaucracy. Lastly, the high quality of the product is overshadowed by the timeliness of delivery for the most complex naval vessels of the time – from 469 days in 1941 to a mere 222 days in 1944 (Watterson 106).

     With these examples from decades ago in mind, current application poses the modern problem of over-complication. The legacy of the simple and effective leadership model of Portsmouth Naval Shipyard during this crucial time in history is best summarized by former New Hampshire Senator John Sununu: “The cooperation between shipyard workers and management serves as a model for any business in any industry” (23) The styles of both Commandant Withers and Captain Davis became secondary to the goal of producing a product and conflict management of “cooperativeness and assertiveness”, according to Jaiswal, Bhavna, and Srivastava (8) posed only a minimal obstacle with the empowerment of intelligent, motivated, and valued employees.

     History seems to perpetuate on an endless cycle of rediscovering “old” problems without recognizing the pattern established previously. With the application of thoughtful consideration of how more was done with far less, utilization of these lessons of simplicity without being rudimentary will result in not only competent leadership and management, but the creation of a legacy which is imperishable in its quality.



      
Works Cited:

Galvani, William. "USS Pampanito: Killer-Angel." Naval War College Review 53.4 (2000): 171-2. ProQuest. Web. 9 Nov. 2014.

Jaiswal, Bhavna, and Praveen Srivastava. "The Effect of Transactional Analysis Ego States On Conflict Management Styles." IUP Journal of Soft Skills 7.2 (2013): 7-12. Business Source Complete. Web. 4 Nov. 2014

Sununu, John E. "Shipyard Leads the Way in Savings, Efficiency." New Hampshire Business Review 27.3 (2005): 23. Regional Business News. Web. 4 Nov. 2014.

Watterson, Rodney. 32 In 44 : Building the Portsmouth Submarine Fleet in World War II. New York, NY, USA: Naval Institute Press, 2011. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 9 November 2014.
« Last Edit: November 09, 2014, 11:30:21 PM by Mike » Logged

"When you're holding people's attention, I feel you must give them high-quality ingredients. They deserve nothing but your best. And if they need information, get it, cross-check it, and try to be right. Do not waste their time; do not enjoy the ego trip of being onstage."

Henry Rollins
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« Reply #7 on: May 21, 2015, 12:32:48 AM »

This was the final paper written for my Research Methods in History class earlier this year.

I debated on posting it, but after some consideration, I feel that my position of remaining open for critique would be remiss if I offered nothing for analysis. Having said that, I made every attempt to remain unbiased with this assignment, so if there are any issues with what I wrote, I can only hope that it is due to inaccuracy only and not perceived malice.

The formatting here didn't allow for the footnotes to be carried forward properly, but it's good enough to convey the idea...


Echoes of the Silent Service
   

Introduction
     Submarine museums are scattered all throughout the United States – from Hawaii to New Hampshire. These grey sentinels symbolize the legacy of a time long gone and offer a glimpse of the last remaining artifacts of the efforts and leadership of men and women during some of the most influential events in recent history. Although their battles in times of war have been won, they continue to be involved in another fight – this one against nature, politics, carelessness, and greed. Therefore, preservation of these historic vessels should remain the primary motivation behind the actions and motivation of submarine museum staff.

In Service
     The contributions of U.S submarines in the Pacific Theater of Operations during the Second World War epitomized Sun Tzu’s writings and only after the war properly documented and realized. Two hundred, eighty-eight  American submarines sank a over five million tons  of Japanese merchant shipping and accounted for over 55% of all enemy shipping destroyed within four years . Almost immediately following the surrender of Japan on September 2, 1945, these low grey predators of the Pacific began the long trip back to ports on the East and West coast of the United States for decommissioning and, for some, almost immediate decommissioning and destruction. Other boats, as submarines are referred to, were to be modified for special post war use, but these too were not spared from the shipbreaker’s yards.
Under Title 10, United States Code, Section 7306 , significant vessels may be obtained by 501(c) 3 non-profit organizations in order to promote, commemorate, and safeguard naval heritage and history for future generations. Receiving a donated vessel, however, brings the responsibility for maintaining the ship “in a manner that does not disrespect the veterans that served on these ships or the proud traditions and heritage of the U.S. Navy” . While the organization or individual associated with the operation of a historic ship “assumes title to the vessel and all ownership costs” , the responsibility of improperly displayed or operated ships ultimately rests with the Navy  due to the fact that the reasonable standards and expectations understood in the process of applying for and receiving the stewardship of such vessels exist as a framework for not just honor of the past but for the safety of the present and future.

Issues - Financial
     By the definition of the Internal Revenue Service, any organization classified as a non-profit must be “organized and operated exclusively for exempt purposes forth in section 501(c)(3), and none of its earnings may inure to any private shareholder or individual” . Misleading as it is, the term non-profit in the case of museum ships fails to capture the realities and necessities for the operation and preservation of these vessels. According to fundraising publications available online, the 2014 dry-docking budget detail for one such museum ship, the USS Pampanito, was estimated to be $500,000 . These costs covered much needed repairs which were impossible to effect as the ship is moored in San Francisco bay and is only able to be dry-docked once every seven years . For ships like the USS Drum, taken out of the corrosive environment of Mobile Bay in 2001 at a cost of $1.4 million , the costs of continuing restoration due to exposure to salt, sediment, and wave action are often out of pocket at times for selfless volunteers or from donations in the form of materials and equipment from local businesses.

Issues - Environmental
     Sea-going ships produced during the Second World War were developed long before concerns about the environment and health drove industrial safety practices of today. Asbestos, lead, oil for lubrication and fuel, hydraulic fluids and even radioactive material may be found on the ships not yet deemed suitable for display, and even for the ships open for tours such as the USS Clamagore, the presence of the lead-acid storage batteries poses the requirement for trained personnel and proper facilities for handling and disposal . As Weiner points out the concerns for the USS Ling in New Jersey were not the threat posed to the local environment and resources, but the “protection of staff, volunteers, and the public from these and other harmful materials and substances”.

Issues - Legal
     Considerations for the legal aspect of operating and maintaining a museum sub range from the protection of history to the protection of the visitors on board. Guidelines set forth by the Office of the Secretary of the Interior, while not legally binding, are in place “to assist in assist individual vessel owners in formulating plans for management of historic vessels in a manner consistent with the intent of the standards” .  However, the laws set forth by the IRS as to the proper reporting and record-keeping for non-profit organizations are more firm in the expectations of conduct. Likewise, the regulatory boundaries established by the Environmental Protection Agency, U.S Coast Guard, as well as the local City and State laws dictate daily operations as well as access to compartments requiring the use of ladders. Insurance coverage for historic access to ships such as the USS Cod, in Cleveland, Ohio may be different for the USS Pampanito in San Francisco, California for example , resulting in entirely different experiences for visitors and logistical planning for staff.

Successes
     Location drives the definition of success for three of the museum boats – the USS Cod, USS Pampanito, and the USS Bowfin. With easy access to large metropolitan areas – Cleveland, Ohio, San Francisco, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, respectively – these museums maintain a steady flow of visitors as well as proximity to organizations and individuals willing to donate time and money towards restoration efforts. In the case of the USS Cod, the relationship with the residents of Cleveland was forged in 1959 when the Navy Reserve relocated the submarine there in order to facilitate the education and training of reservists in the city . Also key to promoting continual nationwide public interest in the USS Cod is the fact that it remains the only museum submarine of its class which has not been altered for visitor ease of access, requiring entry and exit through the original hatches  Although altered in this sense, the USS Pampanito received recognition in the 1995 movie Down Periscope , and the preservation, documentation, and promotion of this museum boat showcases the results effective promotion for the cause of preservation. Likewise, the USS Bowfin benefits from being not only within line of sight of the same piers it departed from on wartime patrols, but also within view of the USS Arizona Memorial, and the USS Missouri. These three locations capture the beginning, continuation, and end of the United States’ involvement in the Pacific Theater of Operations during the Second World War. The performance of these three submarine museums therefore could be linked to not just location, but to strong ties within the local community as well as effective promotion and endorsement.

In Peril
It is important to note that location does not always guarantee success for submarine museums. Located in Charleston, South Carolina, the USS Clamagore has fallen into such a state of disrepair due to the negligence of previous leadership that actions were underway as recently as 2013 to scuttle the museum boat in an effort to make an artificial reef . Efforts by veterans in Tennessee to relocate the USS Clamagore to Knoxville , however, offer a glimpse of the dedication of former sailors and other preservation-minded service members and citizens to prevent the loss of one museum boat. Leadership issues also plagued the USS Torsk – the submarine responsible for the last American submarine attack of the war  - in Baltimore, Maryland. In April of 2014, a standoff developed between Torsk Volunteer Association - responsible for performing maintenance and repairs on the boat - and the museum staff over paperwork requirements, and differences of opinions. Lastly, the USS Ling, located in Hackensack, New Jersey, suffered damage to the meager museum facility during Hurricane Sandy in 2012 , and as of February 2013, was “financial distress” and threatened by encroaching development  with no long-term plans for either relocation or improvement to the existing museum.

Failures
     While not an American submarine with the distinction of serving in the Second World War, the fate of the former Soviet submarine, K-77, serves as an ominous reminder of the precarious relationship between weather and these floating museums. In April of 2007, a storm and associated tidal surges flooded the unoccupied submarine through openings made for ease of access , sinking her at her berth. The K-77 was refloated fifteen months after sinking, but according to Carey, there was “no economically reasonable option to pursue other than to dispose of the boat for its scrap salvage value” , and the submarine was scrapped. Another noteworthy failure, the USS Cabot was an aircraft carrier acquired in 1989 and slated for conversion to a museum ship in Kenner, Louisiana , shortly thereafter. Mismanagement and neglect by the owning non-profit organization, the U.S.S. Cabot Dedalo Museum Foundation, Inc., resulted in damage to facilities where the ship was moored, environmental contamination, and a legal battle lasting a decade and resulting in the ship being scrapped . Both of these examples offer possible outcomes for poorly managed and funded museum boats of all types.

Future
     One of the bigger considerations for conservation for these museum boats is the fact that most remain afloat and the watertight integrity of these vessels is threatened by corrosion and extremes of weather. Preservation in water is difficult and requires frequent dry-docking in order to clean, inspect, and reapply protective coatings to portions of the hull not accessible when moored in place. An alternative to this frequent preventive maintenance is to beach the submarine on land, much like the USS Batfish and USS Drum, in Mobile, Alabama. While the appeal of visiting a ship still afloat generates interest in visitors and potential donors alike, the increased maintenance costs, vulnerability to extremes of weather, and loss of revenue for times when the central attraction to a submarine museum is inaccessible in a dry-dock is a major consideration for museum boats afloat. Likewise, the perils of weather typically do not effect museums boats on land, they too are subject to the elements and in need of frequent, yet much easier, inspection and repair. Both of these considerations are critical for preserving these vessels for future generations.

     An often underrated, yet critical component to the success or failure of a museum is the Operations side of any museum. Typical of job descriptions of the position of “Museum Operations Manager”, East Tennessee University Office of Human Resources lists core values of “people, relationships, diversity, excellence, efficiency, and commitment”.   The importance of the Operations function of museum management is emphasized by Boylan in that due to decentralization of these administrative functions, much of the responsibilities of the day to day functions now rest with senior staff and upper management.  Regardless of location, with poor operational relevance, presence, and drive, Tannenbaum writes, “these factors can be completely wiped out if a museum-ship organization lacks vision, professionalism, and accepted business and fiscal practices”.

     Fundraising, the most important part of operating a non-profit organization, is the life-blood of any museum. Parman writes that, “with public perception at an all-time low, practicing ethical fund raising has never been more important as an organizations' reputation directly relates to donors' trust”.  This trust, critical to the viability of these museums, not only generates income for the staff and capital for continued operations, but establishes an identity and a cause for promoting the legacy of the museum as well as potential donors of money, resources, or facilities. Part of the process of fundraising is the financial planning for not just the present, but the future, and as Tannenbaum described, “the wise operations are the ones planning ahead and saving, rather than waiting for issues to reach the crisis state”.

     The next generation of volunteers, staff, and donors are currently visiting and watching these precious few museum boats. From the nine year-old showing interest by poising the candid question as to whether or not the submarine will be around for his kids to see, to the student inspired by stories of bravery and determination, to the fourth-generation submariner with a direct connection to these silent relics of a time long past, the preservation of these vessels transcends all present issues. Dawson addresses the schoolchildren of today in stating that “they are far from passive consumers, and unless you allow them to be active in engaging with content, you will lose them”.  Engaging the child of today is involving the adult of the future, and for any museum to be successful in the present, the investment is in the future.

     It is my opinion, therefore, that “success” and “failure” of submarine museums cannot be readily measured in definitions of present terms. The end goal of these museums is not a “finish line” type goal, nor is it merely measured in a numerical figure of dollars or visitors per year. Instead, the goal is to have the stories, equipment, and vessels outlast the current caretakers much like they have remained long after the men who forged, maintained, and sailed on them into history. It is the responsibility of the museum staff to prevent ego, unethical behavior, and carelessness from compromising the integrity of the stories which are waiting to be told.

     Material artifacts will always contest the slow decay which time brings. It is the charge of modern society to prevent or delay this inevitable process to safeguard the links to its past for the educational and cultural benefits for future generations. Therefore, with utmost care and reverence in both action and motivation should these historic vessels be treated submarine museum staff. Once the tangible proof of history is lost, there is no way to get it back.


Bibliography:

Adely, Hannan. “Navy museum remains closed, seeks funding for repairs”. The Record. February 22, 2013. accessed February 28, 2015, http://www.hackensacknow.org/index.php?topic=2626.0

Boylan, Patrick. “Running a Museum: A Practical Handbook”. ICOM – International Council of Museums. 2004. accessed February 28, 2015, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001410/141067e.pdf

Carey, Christopher. “A Cold Warrior’s Final Patrol: Russian Submarine K-77”. accessed February 28, 2015, http://webs.lanset.com/aeolusaero/Articles/A_Cold_Warrior_13-Mar-10.pdf

Clamagore Restoration and Maintenance Association, “Business Plan to Save and Relocate the  USS Clamagore SS-343”,  accessed February15,2015, http://www.savetheclamagore.com/CLAMAGORE%20Business%20Plan%20v3.pdf.

Darlington, Abigail. “Rusting Clamagore Sub at Patriots Point Likely to Become a Marine Reef”. The Post and Courier. November 1, 2013. accessed February 28, 2015, http://www.postandcourier.com/article/20131101/PC05/131109858

Dawson, Ross. “Thinking About the Future of Museums: Fourteen Key Issues”. Trends in the Living Networks. May 22, 2008. accessed February 28, 2015, http://rossdawsonblog.com/weblog/archives/2008/05/thinking_about.html

East Tennessee University. The Office of Human Resources. Job Description: Museum Operations Manager. February 2012. accessed February 28, 2015, http://www.etsu.edu/humanres/jobdescriptions/admin/235210.aspx

Historic Naval Ships Association, “FAQ: So You Want a Historic Ship”, accessed February 13, 2015, http://archive.hnsa.org/handbook/faq.htm.

Hon. Kucinich, Dennis. Congressional Record Volume 155, Number 138 “In Recognition of the U.S.S. Cod’s 50 Years in Cleveland” accessed March 1, 2015, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2009-09-29/html/CREC-2009-09-29-pt1-PgE2386-3.htm

Internal Revenue Service, “Exemption Requirements - 501(c)(3) Organizations,” accessed February 15, 2015 http://www.irs.gov/Charities-&-Non-Profits/Charitable-Organizations/Exemption-Requirements-Section-501%28c%29%283%29-Organizations

Moore, Don. “USS Torsk, Only Sub to Sink Train in World War II”. Blog. December 20, 2010. accessed February 28, 2015,  http://donmooreswartales.com/2010/12/20/don-lichty/

National Parks Service Form 10-900. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form May 1985 accessed March 1, 2015, http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Text/86000088.pdf

Naval History Magazine - August 2012 Volume 26, Number 4 pg 9 http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/1023459346?pq-origsite=summon

Owens, Raymond. “Knoxville Veteran Trying to Bring USS Clamagore to East Tennessee”. News 2. August 21, 2014. accessed February 28, 2015, http://www.counton2.com/story/26284107/knoxville-veteran-trying-to-bring-uss-clamagore-to-east-tennessee

Parman, Kelsey. Practicing Ethical Fundraising in Museums.  accessed February 28, 2015, http://scholarship.shu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2899&context=dissertations

Roscoe, Theodore. United States Submarine Operations in World War II. Annapolis: US Naval Institute Press, 1949.

San Francisco Maritime National Park Association “USS Pampanito Volunteer Manual 2010” http://www.maritime.org/pres/pampvolunteer.pdf.

San Francisco Maritime National Park Association, “Help Support the USS Pampanito,” accessed February 15, 2015 http://maritime.org/pampanito2014.pdf

San Francisco Maritime National Park Association, “Welcome to USS Pampanito (SS-383)!” accessed February 28, 2015, http://www.maritime.org/pamphome.htm

SEA 21 Navy Inactive Ships Office, Ship Donation Program accessed February 13, 2015, http://www.navsea.navy.mil/teamships/Inactiveships/Donation/default.aspx

Tannenbaum, Fred. "In Contact." Naval History 26, no. 4 (08, 2012): 8-9, (accessed March 2, 2015). http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/1023459346?pq-origsite=summon

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Maritime Initiative, “The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Historic Vessel Preservation Projects with Guidelines for Applying the Standards,” 1990 accessed February15, 2015,  http://archive.hnsa.org/standard.pdf.

United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit. 297 F. 3d 378 - United States v. Ex-Uss Cabot/Dedalo. accessed February 28, 2015, http://openjurist.org/297/f3d/378/united-states-v-ex-uss-cabotdedalo

USS Drum (SS-228), “The Move to Land,” accessed February 15, 2015, http://www.drum228.org/history.html.

Weiner, Seth I. (2012). Save our Ships: The Viability of Naval Vessels as Museum Exhibitions. accessed February15,2015, http://scholarship.shu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2835&context=dissertations.
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« Reply #8 on: May 31, 2015, 04:24:03 PM »

Very nice!
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« Reply #9 on: May 31, 2015, 05:08:23 PM »

Thanks, Lance...

It was a bit short, but the assignment wasn't to write a comprehensive study... That comes later, I think.
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« Reply #10 on: June 25, 2015, 02:25:04 AM »

Mike,

That is a very comprehensive briefing that truly tells a story of what our museum submarines along with the staff and volunteers are going through around the country,  Thank you for writing this and telling our stories

Thanks,

Darrin
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« Reply #11 on: July 19, 2015, 01:31:01 AM »

It's been a while since I was able to get on here, but thanks, Darrin...

In retrospect - after my recent trip up to see the Karen at the Cobia, and Paul at the Cod - there were a lot more points I could have covered more in detail, but it was sort of like shooting a shotgun in the dark at the time of writing. The good thing, aside from meeting fine people, was getting a better grasp of the issues that each boat faces in this time of slow fluctuation from first-hand knowledge to the following generations of history buffs and preservationists. My hope is that the bug will bite the right people and the legacies of the current Curators, Historians, and Caretakers will live on strongly.

Mike
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« Reply #12 on: December 08, 2015, 12:44:03 AM »

It's been a while since I have posted, but schoolwork has consumed a lot of my time. However, I thought I would share the result of what started out as somewhat of a challenge between the Professor and myself. It seems that VADM Lockwood did not immediately come to mind as a candidate for a paper about a "Great Captain" of history, whereas Grand Admiral Dönitz would have been acceptable. Of course, as the saying goes: "Them's fightin' words..." and the result posted below was, in the words of the Professor: "...One of the best original subject papers I have read at APUS in 16 years" and worthy of a grade of 100%.
I would love to post it with all of the appropriate footnotes, but the formatting here won't allow easy replication. Regardless, I hope it provides enjoyable, informational, and accurate reading (if there are inaccuracies, please don't hesitate to point them out)...


Charles A. Lockwood: The Great Captain of the Silent Service
   
     The term “Great Captain” has been used to describe men of the past whom commanded immense groups of men on the land, on the sea, in the air, and into immortal renown. Throughout human history, however, leaders of equal prominence have existed as key individuals responsible for shaping the conflict in which they served and creating a proud legacy to be studied, modeled, and admired for generations. One of these subtle, yet important, figures is Vice Admiral Charles A. Lockwood – Commander, Submarines, Pacific Fleet – during the Second World War, and the man responsible for leading a small portion of the United States Navy in submarine warfare against the entire Imperial Japanese Navy and merchant fleet.

     Born May 6, 1890, in Midland, Va.,  Charles Lockwood’s formative years and early development are noteworthy only for the fact that very little information supports anything other than an unremarkable childhood. The beginnings of his naval career are even contrary indicators as to the type of leader he would later become. Graduating 123rd of 156 from the United States Naval Academy, Lockwood lead only in the number of demerits received - 203.  Order of merit in areas such as “efficiency” and “conduct” likewise showed no discernable innate proficiency or skill as he was ranked 115th and 161st, respectively in these areas. However, in 1912 he received his commission and within two years, while assigned to the harbor tug USS Mohician, he received his first exposure and subsequent instruction with the most technologically advanced vessel of the day, the submarine. 
     
     Prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941, Lockwood broadened his leadership skills in assignments such as Commander, First Submarine Division, Asiatic Fleet, assistant naval attaché in the US Embassy in Tokyo,  and witnessed the effects of the attempted naval blockade of Great Britain in the early stages of what would soon become the Second World War while assigned as the U.S. Naval attaché, London, England.  A submariner at heart, Lockwood had prior experience with the more advanced German U-boats, and in fact, had commanded the newly captured UC-97 in 1919 through the St. Lawrence Seaway and into the Great Lakes on a publicity drive for Victory Bonds.  More importantly, though, this exposure to the potential submarines possessed in waging war across oceans lead a series of recommendations he submitted in 1938.  Lockwood sought to increase operating depth to 250 feet, add two aft torpedo tubes, reduce overall diving time to less than 40 seconds, and improve overall crew habitability  - all of which foreshadowed operational needs which would turn out to be crucially important three years later.

     After 18 years of service, Lockwood was assigned as Commander Submarines Southwest Pacific, based in Albany, Western Australia in May 1942.  It was there where he began to understand the importance of maintaining the morale of his submariners as they attempted to maintain what viable defensive and offensive operations against an enemy with substantial logistical, tactical, and numerical advantages. Adding to the multitude of considerations and concerns U.S. forces were faced with, issues with the Mark 14 torpedo – the submarine’s primary weapon – began to become more and more frequent. Reports of misses, premature detonations, and duds prompted Lockwood to begin an informal, yet determined series of tests and official inquiries in mid-1942  and continued as rose to the rank of Rear Admiral and assumed his responsibilities for all U.S. submarines assigned to the Pacific. Upon determining that not only did the torpedoes run deeper than was set prior to firing, the magnetic influence detonators and the mechanical firing pins were defective, Lockwood was quick to disseminate instructions to his command. Along with this, though, Lockwood directly challenged the designer of the weapon, the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd) in defending the submarine commanders against accusations that the fault lie not in the torpedo, but in the inability for the commanders to properly employ the weapon.  Characteristic of his ferocity in addressing such bureaucratic pettiness, Lockwood addressed those present at the Submarine Officer’s Conference in Washington D.C. with the biting recommendation to fit the torpedoes with “a boat hook with which we can rip the plates off a target’s side.” 

     Ongoing struggles to maintain the effectiveness of his fleet did not cease with the identification and rectification of the issues with the torpedoes. Relentless pursuit of the Japanese merchant routes resulted in the need to patrol areas which were accurately suspected to be sown with naval mines. Because of this, Lockwood became very involved in the development, testing, trials, and incorporation of frequency modulated sonar equipment for his fleet.  Logistic and support problems which arose due to the long transit distances to and from patrol areas limited the effectiveness of his fleet not just in fuel consumption, but from the natural environmental toll placed on the boats. Seeking to establish submarine-capable bases closer to the shrinking Empire, Lockwood personally scouted possible locations and effectively campaigned to dredging equipment and other construction assets to be diverted accordingly in places like Midway.

     Lockwood established himself well as the head of the “Silent Service”, as the submarine forces were called. As a result of his leadership and efforts as the youngest Rear Admiral in the Navy, he was subsequently awarded several Navy Distinguished Service Medals, citing his “sound judgement and professional skill” in establishing operational planning, “tactical execution of submarine operations”, and “unwavering devotion to duty”.  His dedication and commitment to the quickest resolution to the war with Japan earned him the highest respect of those whom served with him, and it was because of the contributions of his leadership that Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz appropriately ensured that Lockwood was direct witness to the surrender of the Japanese onboard the USS Missouri.  In ensuring that the heroism of the men he led lived on after his retirement in 1947, Lockwood spent the last 13 years of his life writing memoirs, historical accounts of his experiences, and providing his services as technical advisor for some of the most accurate cinematic portrayals of what he knew best – submarines , the men, and their stories.

     Determining the leadership style effectively utilized by Lockwood proves to be difficult in that he displayed both “transactional” and “transformational” leadership in an inconsistent, yet extremely effective manner. “Transactional” leadership – that which establishes the internal roles, personal rewards, and desired outcome for those within an organization  is best shown in the frequent and ready praise Lockwood publicly extolled of those within his command. Even when faced with problematic engines on their first patrol, Lockwood congratulated the officers and the crew of the Gunnel for a “highly aggressive and successful war patrol”. 

     “Transformational” leadership exhibited by Lockwood, however, is more evident while being subtle at the same time. Along with the great distances involved between the operating areas of submarines on patrol and Pearl Harbor, operational requirements prohibited frequent radio communications. The empowerment entrusted to his subordinates for relative “freedom to maneuver” in their patrols was only possible with one shared vision and goal – to sink enemy ships. Lockwood strongly personified Taylor’s idea of “creating a mental picture by use of a language from shared experiences”.  Lockwood spoke the jargon of his subordinates to the point of engaging in debate with his peers over the use of slang in patrol reports,  and was capable of deciphering vital information “between the lines” of official patrol reports and listening to what was discussed off-duty at officer’s clubs.  With this information, he was able to comfortably discuss intention, entertain alternatives, and officially endorse subordinates’ recommended proposals; greatly endearing himself and gaining their steadfast loyalty.

     Emotional intelligence, a combination of self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills,  was best described by Lockwood in a postwar memoir concerning submariners:
          “They must be alert without being brittle, . . . interested in their shipmates without being nosy; they must appreciate food without being gluttons; they must respect privacy without being seclusive; they must be talkers without being gabby; and they must be friendly without being tail-waggers. . . . The wrong kind of a man aboard a sub, on a long cruise, can become an insufferable thorn in the sides of shipmates. He can, emotionally, cause almost as much damage as an enemy depth bomb.”
      In identifying these characteristics, Lockwood offered a reflection of the exact traits he possessed and led by. Given that there are no absolutes in human behavior, therefore no guarantee as to a solid and singular leadership style which is most effective all the time, emotional intelligence such as what manifested in Lockwood’s leadership, negates any simple attempt at categorization.

     Aggression and action were of the utmost importance from America’s entry into the war, and one of the realities Lockwood had to specifically reinforce for his submariners was his inability to accept and condone hesitation and timidity in their conduct of operations. While not initially prepared for the scope of naval warfare required due to prewar deficiencies in training or doctrine, Lockwood had little choice but to relieve those commanders slow to adapt to the needs and challenges before them.  Ultimately, Lockwood rose to the challenge set before him of overcoming obstacles and expected those in his command to do likewise, and the transition from peace to war complimented nicely his ascent in the ranks to affect the needed changes.

   Part of what distinguishes Lockwood as a great leader from other well-known examples is the fact that he gave his commanders the much needed voice at the time they needed it the most.  He was their advocate for their reputation, their promoter of deed, their supplier of comfort and necessity, and their champion of efficiency. He stood behind his men in everything – from construction programs incorporating the operational lessons learned into improved submarine designs, to true “rest and recuperation” in the form of sponsored and informal arrangements for musicians, entertainers, sports figures, and food while not on patrol,  to insisting independent operation while at sea – Lockwood favored his men and was obligated to reciprocate their loyalty.  This is not to imply that Lockwood was above administering justified reprimand or without error, though. When the USS Queenfish attacked and sunk the Awa Maru – a Japanese hospital ship - on April 1st, 1945, Lockwood was swift in relieving the commander, although he also ensured that the commander retained the best legal defense for the subsequent proceedings.

     Always seeking relevance and firsthand experience as to the conditions his men experienced, Lockwood fought unsuccessfully to go out on patrol with his submariners, and while denied, routinely traveled as a passenger on boats transiting between Pearl Harbor and Midway and on these trips could be found sitting on a bucket in a torpedo room, engaged in casual conversation with the torpedomen.  Seeking a swift conclusion to the war and resumption of normal life, Lockwood understood the fact that the best way to bring about such a result was to use submarines to bolster the improving morale of his men and impart a strategic and psychological blow to the Japanese by directing his assets to strike shipping in the Sea of Japan.  Of course, this was not an attempt to micromanage the efforts of the submariners; other than establishing target priority in 1943, placing carriers, battleships and tankers at the top , Lockwood remained relatively hands off when it came to operational matters – freeing himself up for administrative issues to tackle.

     The legacy left behind by Lockwood’s leadership, while understated, is significant. Towards the end of the war, he began to add photographers to the crews to document and commit to history the exploits of his submariners.  His contributions to the development and integration of hard-learned lessons of war and his resistance to that what he viewed as “rule-book thinking and hidebound conformity”  created a generation of men who followed in his example. Over four decades after the end of the Second World War, the U.S. Navy established the “The Vice Admiral Charles A. Lockwood Award for Submarine Professional Excellence” to recognize individual officers and enlisted personnel for “achievement, contribution, specific action or consistent performance, which best exemplifies the traditional spirit embodied in the Submarine Force.”

   Lockwood’s leadership style of the past offers an idea of how to better shape future military leaders and mold the next “great captains” in several ways. By prioritizing the men along with the needs of the mission, he demonstrated a solid grasp that one complimented the other. By establishing a rotational tour of duty which sent commanders ashore after five consecutive patrols,  he ensured fewer operational losses and improved the overall welfare of the crews. He also challenged officers to instill aggressiveness and initiative, borrowing the spirit of Brigadier General Lincoln C. Andrews’ philosophy that a leader who is ignorant and/or lazy is, “next to a coward, the most dangerous man”.  Similarly, Lockwood’s approach to a unified understanding of the ideas behind training and relevant use of the knowledge imparted from effective doctrine lends credit to Marechal De Saxe’s disdain for apathetic adherence to following “blindly adopted maxims”.  Lastly, empathy allowed Lockwood to offer sage guidance when approached for clarification on the extent to which he wished commanders to execute warfare against the enemy by appealing to their own conscience in determining the proper course of action.

   Rear Admiral Charles A. Lockwood was a “great captain” in that he possessed high emotional intelligence and empathy as he led the “Silent Service” against the naval combatants and merchant of the Japanese Empire during the Second World War. He has charismatic in the conduct of his duties and the manner in which he contested problems within his own Navy which hampered the performance of his command. Most importantly, though, he was ethical in the application of his own personal strengths and abilities in order to lead effectively and accomplish a mission of the utmost importance to the overall victory in the Pacific. Therefore, regardless of inauspicious beginnings, Charles Lockwood emerged as a prominent leader and key individual responsible for shaping the conflict in which he served and created a proud legacy to be studied, modeled, and admired for generations.

Bibliography:

“American Submarine Warfare” Military Literature Memoirs. Accessed on November 20, 2015. http://militera.lib.ru/memo/usa/loc....

“Annual Register of the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD.” Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. October 1, 1911. Accessed on November 20, 2015. https://archive.org/stream/annualre....

Anonymous. "Operation Barney." Naval History 9, no. 3 (May, 1995): 54. Accessed on November 20, 2015.http://search.proquest.com/docview/....

Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. Atrocity, Deviance, and Submarine Warfare : Norms and Practices During the World Wars. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: University of Michigan Press, 2013. Accessed November 17, 2015. ProQuest ebrary. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/apus/rea....

Cairns, Lynne. Secret Fleets: Fremantle's World War II Submarine Base. Artarmon, NSW, AUS: Western Australian Museum, 2013. Accessed November 17, 2015. ProQuest ebrary. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/apus/rea....

Fowler, Mary Lee Coe. Full Fathom Five: A Daughter's Search. Tuscaloosa, AL, USA: University of Alabama Press, 2008. Accessed November 17, 2015. ProQuest ebrary. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/apus/rea....

Friedman, Norman. US Submarines Through 1945: An Illustrated Design History. Naval Institute Press. 1995.

Holwitt, Joel Ira. Execute Against Japan: The U.S. Decision to Conduct Unrestricted Submarine Warfare. College Station, TX, USA: Texas A&M University Press, 2009. Accessed November 17, 2015. ProQuest ebrary. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/apus/rea....

Liddell Hart, Basil. Great Captains Revealed. London: Da Capo Press,1996.

Lockwood, Charles A. Sink 'em All: Submarine Warfare in the Pacific. Dutton, 1951.

Military Times. “Wall of Valor Charles Andrews Lockwood, Jr.” Accessed on November 20, 2015. http://valor.militarytimes.com/reci....

Moore, Stephen. Battle Surface! : Lawson P. "Red" Ramage and the War Patrols of the USS Parche. New York, NY, USA: Naval Institute Press, 2011. Accessed November 17, 2015. ProQuest ebrary. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/apus/rea....

Nicholson, Ruth S. “Charles A. Lockwood Papers: A Finding Aid to His Papers in the Naval Historical Foundation Collection in the Library of Congress”. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Washington, D.C. December 2011. Accessed on November 20, 2015. http://rs5.loc.gov/service/mss/eadx...

Roscoe, Theodore, and Voge, Richard G. United States Submarine Operations in World War II. Naval Institute Press, 1949.

Sturma, Michael. "U.S. Submarine Patrol Reports during World War II: Historical Evidence and Literary Flair." The Journal of Military History 74, no. 2 (April, 2010): 475-490. http://search.proquest.com/docview/....

Sturma, Michael. "U.S. Fleet Submarines in the Atlantic during the Second World War: A Case Study of Relative Failure." War in History 22, no. 4 (November, 2015): 529-552. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/096834451.... http://search.proquest.com/docview/....

Sturma, Michael. USS Flier: Death and Survival on a World War II Submarine. Lexington, KY, USA: University Press of Kentucky, 2008. Accessed November 17, 2015. ProQuest ebrary. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/apus/rea....

Taylor, Robert L. Military Leadership: In Pursuit of Excellence. (6th Edition). Boulder, CO, USA: Westview Press, 2008. Accessed November 11, 2015. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/apus/rea....

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Zimmerman, Dwight J. The Mark 14 Torpedo Scandal. DefenseMedia Network.com. March 4, 2013. http://www.defensemedianetwork.com/....
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« Reply #13 on: November 06, 2017, 02:10:52 PM »

So, thanks to Lance and Rich, I was reminded of the wonderful contributions here and realized that, in my now-completed academic rush, I neglected to follow up with posting some of my assignments here.

I love the feedback I have received form what I have posted thus far, and I thank you folks for your consideration and support in what I have shared so far. Rather than copying directly from my blog, I shall provide the links and a brief comment on what I have written and why these things are relevant to this audience. Feel free to comment as necessary...

https://milsurpwriter.wordpress.com/2017/11/06/soviet-shipping-and-american-subs-a-look-at-fratricide/
I briefly touched on the topic of Soviet shipping losses due to American subs in my most recent post. In answering a question about little-known facts about the Second World War, I considered sharing the tale of the Pampanito's repairs on her third patrol (one of my favorites), but I realized I hadn't expanded upon this particular aspect of the war in previous studies/writing.

https://milsurpwriter.wordpress.com/2017/06/26/influences-of-interwar-doctrine-and-training-on-the-successes-of-u-s-submarines-in-the-pacific-theater-of-operations-during-the-second-world-war/
This was my thesis and the big assignment. There was much I felt that I could expand upon further, but I had to limit the size to fit the maximum allowable page limit. I could pair it down a bit for submission to USNI's Proceedings, but so far the idea is problematic due to my concerns of losing critical parts of the story. We shall see.

https://milsurpwriter.wordpress.com/2017/05/16/deception-and-death-linking-a-submarine-to-the-battle-of-kursk/
The title is a bit of a stretch - directly tying the HMS Seraph to the Battle of Kursk may be reaching too far, but I love unconventional stories and this fit that fascination well. This may prove to be a way to generate interest in the new audiences - by pushing the limits of common understanding of history as well as illustrating the human aspect of it.

https://milsurpwriter.wordpress.com/2017/01/05/a-work-in-progress/
The study of history, for most people, is the review of months or years of research, but there is often little description of the motivations and process behind cultivating that history. In looking back, I probably could have documented my process a bit better for this purpose, but it would more than likely have become repetitive for the audience. There is much more on the behind-the-scenes aspect of what draws us to research, curate, and interpret this segment of history, and I think developing this story better would inspire the next generation of historians - something that really needs to be considered in this day of controversy and caution when it comes to the past.

I came to this page at the beginning of my academic career with a couple of key questions. Now, that degree is complete... but the connection to this site and the people within it will never be forgotten. Thanks for the support and feedback and I look forward to continuing on with the discussions and banter when everyone's respective orbits return them here to see if folks are still posting.

Have a great day!
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"When you're holding people's attention, I feel you must give them high-quality ingredients. They deserve nothing but your best. And if they need information, get it, cross-check it, and try to be right. Do not waste their time; do not enjoy the ego trip of being onstage."

Henry Rollins
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